Citrus lab

Lab History

Citrus lab was created during the installation of the experimental groves and the collection of citrus varieties and rootstocks at 1972. In 1977, agronomist Mr. Eftyxios Protopapadakis was assigned to the Institute of Subtropical Plants, after his graduation on virology from the University of Bordeaux II, and in 1981 he obtained his PhD degree on Genetic Improvement and Citrus Taxonomy. After the retirement of Mr. E. Protopapadakis (2006), agronomist Ms V. Loxou was assigned as head lab. In 2007 Mr. N. Kavroulakis was assigned as head lab until September 2017.

At October 2017, the new citrus researcher Dr. Vasileios Ziogas was hired and placed in charge of the IOSVs lab of citriculture. 

 Citrus Fotor



The Institute for Olive tree, Subtropical Plants and Viticulture (IOSV), established in Chania, apart from its research activity, is the curator of the National collection of Citrus plants, preserving a wide range of many citrus varieties and rootstocks. 

 The main research objectives of the lab of citriculture are:

  • Study of antioxidants and their intercellular mechanisms, as biologically active substances with functional role in nutrition and health
  • Evaluation and study of citrus varieties and rootstocks, in terms of qualitative characteristics and their adaptation to abiotic adverse conditions
  • Production and genetic determination of citrus plants, especially varieties and rootstocks acclimated to climate change and market oriented
  • Evaluation and study of agricultural systems adapting principals of precision agriculture and use of innovative technology in citrus orchards
  • Study and evaluation of pioneer compounds for their efficient use in tree crops, in terms of yield and fruit quality
  • Preservation, characterization and enrolment of new citrus species, varieties and rootstocks to the National and European list of citrus cultivars

citrus lab 2 

In the lab of citruculture a series of fruit qualitative measurment are performed including:

Fruit weight, fruit diameter and axis, albedo and flavedo thickness, juice content, total sulible solids, resistance to penetration, skin color, juice color, total acidity, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content, total phenols, total antioxidant activity.

  • In IOSVs citrus lab, different citrus varieties and root stocks introduced from abroad, were evaluated for their potential adaptation to local microclimate conditions (Papadakis et al., 2008). Results indicated that the late varieties “Lane Late” and “Navel Late” when crafted upon Citrumelo and Volkameriana rootstocks, were more adaptive and produced fruits of superior quality, preserving them upon the tree until June.
  • Various vmandarin varieties were evaluated for their ripening period.  “Marisol” clementine and “Satsuma Wase” varieties were the most early ones, reaching their maturation stage in October, while the Nova hybrid, ripen from November and sustained superior quality characteristics until February.
  • Rootstock research showed that Sour orange Brazilian and Sour orange bitter sweet were more adaptive to salinity, while Citrange carizzo was more ideal for early citrus varieties, while Citrumelo Swingle was more suitable for late citrus varieties.
  • IOSVs Citrus lab, was the breeder of new varieties, which were created by using the method of nuclear plants. The Navel RO25 variety, is a creation of IOSV, and among the most early navel ones in Greece. It reaches maturation stage ten days earlier than the “New Hall” with round shaped fruits with thin rind. Zampetaki lemon variety was created by a nuclear plant from “Messara” lemon variety after free pollination with Eureka lemon variety. The fruits are seedless, and ripen mainly during summer. 
Research funds
  • Evaluation of the application of silicon based compounds in olive and citrus groves (2018). Funding: AGROLOGY S.A.
  • Ziogas V., Molassiotis, A., Fotopoulos, V. and Tanou, G. 2018. Hydrogen Sulfide: A potent tool in postharvest biology and possible mechanisms of action. Frontiers and Plant Science.doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01375
  • Paraforos, D., Vassiliadis, V., Dietrich Kortenbruck, D., Stamkopoulos K.,Ziogas V., Sapounas A., Griepentrog H. 2017. Multi-level automation of farm management information systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 142: 504-514
  • Tanou, G.,Ziogas, V., Molassiotis, A. 2017. Foliar nutrition, biostimulants and prime-like dynamics in fruit tree physiology: new insights on an old topic. Frontiers in Plant Science. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00075
  • Paraforos D., Vassiliadis V.,Kortenbruck D., Stamkopoulos K.,Ziogas V., Sapounas A., Griepentrog H. 2016. A Farm Management Information System Using Internet Technologies. IFAC PapersOnLine 49(16): 324-329
  • Ziogas V.,Tanou G., Belghasi M., Diamantidis G. and Molassiotis A. 2016. Characterization of β-amino- and γ-amino butyric acid-induced citrus seeds germination under salinity using nanoLC–MS/MS analysis. Plant Cell Report.doi:10.1007/s00299-016-2063-2
  • Molassiotis, A., Job D.,Ziogas V., Tanou G. 2016. Citrus plants: A model system for unlocking the secrets of NO and ROS-inspired priming against salinity and drought. Frontiers of Plant
  • Drogoudi P., Pantelidis G., Goulas V., Manganaris G.,Ziogas V., Manganaris A. 2016. The appraisal of qualitative parameters and antioxidant contents during postharvest peach fruit ripening underlines the genotype significance. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 115: 142-150
  • Ziogas V., Tanou G., Belghasi M., Filippou P., Fotopoulos V., Diamantidis G. and Molassiotis A. 2015. Roles of sodium hydrosulfide and sodium nitroprusside as priming molecules during drought acclimation in citrus plants. Plant Molecular Biology. 89: 433-450
  • Tanou G.,Ziogas V., Belghazi M., Christou A., Filippou P., Job D., Fotopoulos V., Molassiotis A. 2013. Polyamines reprograms oxidative and nitrosative status and the proteome of citrus plants exposed to salinity stress. Plant Cell and Environment. 37: 864-885
  • Ziogas V., Tanou G., Filippou P., Diamantidis G., Vasilakakis M., Fotopoulos V., Molassiotis A. 2013. Nitrosative responses in citrus plants exposed in six abiotic stress conditions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 68: 118-126
  • Neocleous D.,Ziogas V., Vasilakakis M. 2012. Antioxidant Responses of Strawberry Plants under Stress Conditions. Acta Horticulture. 926: 339-345
  • Ziogas V., Tanou G., Molassiotis A., Diamantidis G., Vasilakakis M. 2010. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of phenolic extracts of olive fruits. Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 1097-1103
  • Koutouvela E., Giannoussis K.,Ziogas V., Molassiotis, A. 2009. Comparative Study of Self-Life Performance of two Kiwifruit Cultivars in Relation to Maturity Indices and Nutritional Quality. Acta Horticulture. 825: 583-588
  • Papadakis, I.E., Protopapadakis, E., Therios, I.N. 2009. Yield and fruit quality of 'Nova' hybrid [Citrus clementina hort. ex Tanaka × (C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macfad)] and two Clementine varieties (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka) as affected by self- and cross-pollination, Scientia Horticulturae, 121(1), pp. 38-41
  • Papadakis, J., Protopapadakis, E., Therios, J. 2008. Yield and fruit quality of two late-maturing Valencia orange tree varieties as affected by harvest date. Fruits 63 (6): 327-334
  • Papadakis, I.E. Chatzissavvidis, C.Therios, I.N.Protopapadakis, E., 2008, Changes in leaf Mn concentrations in mature 'Washington Navel' orange trees with different Mn status after a single foliar application of MnSO4, European Journal of Horticultural Science, 73(4): 162-165
  • Mazokopakis, E.E., Papadakis, J.A.,Papadomanolaki, M.G., (...), Protopapadakis, E., Ganotakis, E.S., 2007. Effects of 12 months treatment with L-selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Thyroid, 17(7): 609-612
  • Mazokopakis, E.E., Protopapadakis, E., 2007. Recommended dietary selenium intake and selenium concentration in nuts [2]. Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine.10(1), pp. 34
  • Papadakis, I.E., Protopapadakis, E., Therios, I.N., Tsirakoglou, V., 2005, Foliar treatment of Mn deficient 'Washington navel' orange trees with two Mn sources, Scientia Horticulturae. 106(1): 70-75
  • Protopapadakis, E., Papadakis, J. and Kasapakis, J. 2004. Collapse of "Encore" Mandarin due to Nutritional Deficiencies. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture
  • Papadakis, I.E., Protopapadakis, E., Dimassi, K.N., Therios, I.N., 2004. Nutritional status, yield, and fruit quality of "Encore" mandarin trees grown in two sites of an orchard with different soil properties, Journal of Plant Nutrition 27(9): 1505-1515
  • Vekiari, S.A., Protopapadakis, E., Gianovits-Argyriadou, N. 2004, Composition of the leaf and peel oils of citrus medica L. ‘Diamante’ from crete, Journal of Essential Oil Research, 16(6): 528-530
  • Tsakelidou, K., Papanikolaou, X., Protopapadakis, E. 2002. Rootstock effects on the yields, tree and fruit characteristics of the mandarin cultivar 'clementine' on the island of Rhodes,Experimental Agriculture 38(3): 351-35
  • Vekiari, S.A.,Protopapadakis, E.,Papadopoulou, P., (...), Panou, C.,Vamvakias, M.2002. Composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil from leaves and peel of a cretan lemon variety. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1): 147-153
  • Vekiari, S.A.,Protopapadakis, E.,Papadopoulou, P.,Argyriadou-Giannovits, N., 2002. Variation in the essential oils of citron leaves and peel infected by exocortis disease.Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology,77(4): 428-43
  • Protopapadakis, E. and Papanikolaou X. 1999. Use of four isozymatic systems in lemon and lemon -like citrus cultivars to detect their genetic diversity Jour. Hort. Sci. Biot 73(6): 26-29
  • Protopapadakis, E., Voulgaropoulous, A. And Sofoniou, M. 1998. Roostocks affect leaf and fruit mineral concentrations of washington navel orange. Fruits 53 (3):167-173
  • Protopapadakis, E. and Papanikolaou, X. 1998. A study on Glutamate - Oxaloacetate Transaminase isozymes of Citron cultivars. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution,45: 561-564
  • Protopapadakis, E. and Papanikolaou, X. 1998. Characterization of Citrus aurantium and Citrus taiwanica rootstocks by isozymes and essential oil analysis. Jour. Hort. Sci. Biot., 73(1):81-85
  • Protopapadakis, E., 1995. Genetic analysis of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase from leaves of Cretan tulip species. Journal of Horticultural Science,70(6): 919-923
  • Protopapadakis, E.,Yannitsaros, A. 1994. Identification by isozymes of nine populations of Tulipa from Greece. Journal of Horticultural Science, 69(1): 11-14

Publication in National Journals

  • Π. Δρογούδη, Γ. Παντελίδης,Β. Ζιώγας, Γ. Μαγγανάρης, Α. Μαγγανάρης. (2015) Μη καταστροφικός προσδιορισμός του σταδίου ωρίμανσης καρπών ροδακινίας και νεκταρινίας με τη χρήση φορητού φασματοφωτόμετρου. Γεωργία και Κτηνοτροφία, Τεύχος 5, σελ. 74-80
  • Παπανικολάου Ξ., Τσεκελίδου, Κ., και Πρωτοπαπαδάκης, Ε. 2001. Επίδραση επτά υποκειμένων στην ανάπτυξη και παραγωγικότητα του δέντρου, την ποιότητα του καρπού και την συγκέντρωση θρεπτικών στοιχείων σε φύλλα πορτοκαλιάς Newhall navel. ΑΓΡΟΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΕΥΝΑ, 23(2):11-19.
  • Πρωτοπαπαδάκης, Ε. 2001. Μέτρα αντιμετώπισης της Tristeza. Γεωργία- Κτηνοτροφία 2:18-20.

Chapter Books

  • Ziogas V., Molassiotis A. 2015. Nitric Oxide Action in the Improvement of Plant Tolerance to Nutritional Stress. pp. 169. In: “Nitric Oxide Action in Abiotic Responses in Plants” M. Nasir Khan, Mohammad Mobin, Firoz Mohammad and Francisco J. Corpas(Eds.). ISBN: 978-3-319-17803-5, Springer
  • Fotopoulos V.,Ziogas V., Tanou G., Molassiotis A. 2010. Involvement of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG Ratios in Gene and Protein Expression and in the Activation of Defence Mechanisms under Abiotic Stress Conditions. pp. 443. In: “Ascorbate-Glutathione pathway and stress tolerance in plants”Anjum, Naser A.; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Umar, Shahid (Eds.) 1st Edition, ISBN: 978-90-481-9403-2, Springer
Lab staff

Dr. Ziogas Vasileios


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Τηλ.: 28210 83432


Vasileios Ziogas


Institute of Olive Tree, Subtropical Plants and Viticulture

Graduate studies

  • 2003, Degree in Agronomy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Post-Graduate studies

  • 2006, MSc, Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive fruits (Olea europaeaL.).Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece 
  • 2014, Ph.D, Pomology, The effect of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) application, in the acclimation of sour orange seedlings (Citrus aurantiumL.) during drought stress. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Greece 

Research topics: Pomology, tree physiology and biochemistry. Study of abiotic stress physiology and antioxidative metabolism in perennial plants. Implementation of innovative technologies in agriculture


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